February 23, 1999
Interim Agreementfor Peace and Self-Government in Kosovo
The Parties to the present Agreement,
Convinced of the need for a peaceful and political solution in
Kosovo as a prerequisite for stability and democracy,
Determined to establish a peaceful environment in Kosovo,
Reaffirming their commitment to the Purposes and Principles of the
United Nations, as well as to OSCE principles, including the Helsinki Final Act and the
Charter of Paris for a new Europe,
Recalling the commitment of the international community to the
sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
Recalling the basic elements/principles adopted by the Contact
Group at its ministerial meeting in London on January 29, 1999,
Recognizing the need for democratic self-government in Kosovo,
including full participation of the members of all national communities in political
Desiring to ensure the protection of the human rights of all
persons in Kosovo, as well as the rights of the members of all national communities,
Recognizing the ongoing contribution of the OSCE to peace and
stability in Kosovo,
Noting that the present Agreement has been concluded under the
auspices of the members of the Contact Group and the European Union and undertaking with
respect to these members and the European Union to abide by this Agreement,
Aware that full respect for the present Agreement will be central
for the development of relations with European institutions,
Have agreed as follows:
Article I: Principles
1. All citizens in Kosovo shall enjoy, without discrimination, the
equal rights and freedoms set forth in this Agreement.
2. National communities and their members shall have additional rights
specified in Chapter 1. Kosovo, Federal, and Republic authorities shall not interfere with
the exercise of these additional rights. The national communities shall be legally equal
as specified herein, and shall not use their additional rights to endanger the rights of
other national communities or the rights of citizens, the sovereignty and territorial
integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or the functioning of representative
democratic government in Kosovo.
3. All authorities in Kosovo shall fully respect human rights,
democracy, and the equality of citizens and national communities.
4. Citizens in Kosovo shall have the right to democratic
self-government through legislative, executive, judicial, and other institutions
established in accordance with this Agreement. They shall have the opportunity to be
represented in all institutions in Kosovo. The right to democratic self-government shall
include the right to participate in free and fair elections.
5. Every person in Kosovo may have access to international institutions
for the protection of their rights in accordance with the procedures of such institutions.
6. The Parties accept that they will act only within their powers and
responsibilities in Kosovo as specified by this Agreement. Acts outside those powers and
responsibilities shall be null and void. Kosovo shall have all rights and powers set forth
herein, including in particular as specified in the Constitution at Chapter 1. This
Agreement shall prevail over any other legal provisions of the Parties and shall be
directly applicable. The Parties shall harmonize their governing practices and documents
with this Agreement.
7. The Parties agree to cooperate fully with all international
organizations working in Kosovo on the implementation of this Agreement.
Article II: Confidence-Building Measures
End of Use of Force
1. Use of force in Kosovo shall cease immediately. In accordance with
this Agreement, alleged violations of the cease-fire shall be reported to international
observers and shall not be used to justify use of force in response.
2. The status of police and security forces in Kosovo, including
withdrawal of forces, shall be governed by the terms of this Agreement. Paramilitary and
irregular forces in Kosovo are incompatible with the terms of this Agreement.
3. The Parties recognize that all persons have the right to return to
their homes. Appropriate authorities shall take all measures necessary to facilitate the
safe return of persons, including issuing necessary documents. All persons shall have the
right to reoccupy their real property, assert their occupancy rights in state-owned
property, and recover their other property and personal possessions. The Parties shall
take all measures necessary to readmit returning persons to Kosovo.
4. The Parties shall cooperate fully with all efforts by the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other international and
non-governmental organizations concerning the repatriation and return of persons,
including those organizations, monitoring of the treatment of persons following their
Access for International Assistance
5. There shall be no impediments to the normal flow of goods into Kosovo, including
materials for the reconstruction of homes and structures. The Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia shall not require visas, customs, or licensing for persons or things for the
Implementation Mission (IM), the UNHCR, and other international organizations, as well as
for nongovernmental organizations working in Kosovo as determined by the Chief of the
Implementation Mission (CIM).
6. All staff, whether national or international, working with
international or non-governmental organizations including with the Yugoslav Red Cross,
shall be allowed unrestricted access to the Kosovo population for purposes of
international assistance. All persons in Kosovo shall similarly have safe, unhindered, and
direct access to the staff of such organizations.
7. Federal organs shall not take any decisions that have a
differential, disproportionate, injurious, or discriminatory effect on Kosovo. Such
decisions, if any, shall be void with regard to Kosovo.
8. Martial law shall not be declared in Kosovo.
9. The Parties shall immediately comply with all requests for support
from the Implementation Mission (IM). The IM shall have its own broadcast frequencies for
radio and television programming in Kosovo. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia shall
provide all necessary facilities, including frequencies for radio communications, to all
humanitarian organizations responsible for delivering aid in Kosovo.
Detention of Combatants and Justice Issues
10. All abducted persons or other persons held without charge shall be
released. The Parties shall also release and transfer in accordance with this Agreement
all persons held in connection with the conflict. The Parties shall cooperate fully with
the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to facilitate its work in accordance
with its mandate, including ensuring full access to all such persons, irrespective of
their status, wherever they might be held, for visits in accordance with the ICRC's
standard operating procedures.
11. The Parties shall provide information, through tracing mechanisms
of the ICRC, to families of all persons who are unaccounted for. The Parties shall
cooperate fully with the ICRC and the International Commission on Missing Persons in their
efforts to determine the identity, whereabouts, and fate of those unaccounted for.
12. Each Party:
(a) shall not prosecute anyone for crimes related to the conflict in
Kosovo, except for persons accused of having committed serious violations of international
humanitarian law. In order to facilitate transparency, the Parties shall grant access to
foreign experts (including forensics experts) along with state investigators;
(b) shall grant a general amnesty for all persons already convicted of
committing politically motivated crimes related to the conflict in Kosovo. This amnesty
shall not apply to those properly convicted of committing serious violations of
international humanitarian law at a fair and open trial conducted pursuant to
13. All Parties shall comply with their obligation to cooperate in the
investigation and prosecution of serious violations of international humanitarian law.
(a) As required by United Nations Security Council resolution 827
(1993) and subsequent resolutions, the Parties shall fully cooperate with the
international Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in its investigations and
prosecutions, including complying with its requests for assistance and its orders.
(b)The Parties shall also allow complete, unimpeded, and unfettered
access to international expertsincluding forensics experts and investigators to
investigate allegations of serious violations of international humanitarian law.
14. Recognizing the importance of free and independent media for the
development of a democratic political climate necessary for the reconstruction and
development of Kosovo, the Parties shall ensure the widest possible press freedoms in
Kosovo in all media, public and private, including print, television, radio, and Internet.
Affirming their belief in a peaceful society, justice, tolerance,
Resolved to ensure respect for human rights and the equality of all
citizens and national communities,
Recognizing that the preservation and promotion of the national,
cultural, and linguistic identity of each national community in Kosovo are necessary for
the harmonious development of a peaceful society,
Desiring through this interim Constitution to establish
institutions of democratic self-government in Kosovo grounded in respect for the
territorial integrity and sovereignty of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and from this
Agreement, from which the authorities of governance set forth herein originate,
Recognizing that the institutions of Kosovo should fairly represent
the national communities in Kosovo and foster the exercise of their rights and those of
Recalling and endorsing the principles/basic elements adopted by
the Contact Group at its ministerial meeting in London on January 29, 1999,
Article I: Principles of Democratic
Self-Government in Kosovo
1. Kosovo shall govern itself democratically through the legislative,
executive, judicial, and other organs and institutions specified herein. Organs and
institutions of Kosovo shall exercise their authorities consistent with the terms of this
2. All authorities in Kosovo shall fully respect human rights,
democracy, and the equality of citizens and national communities.
3. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has competence in Kosovo over the
following areas, except as specified elsewhere in this Agreement: (a) territorial
integrity, (b) maintaining a common market within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
which power shall be exercised in a manner that does not discriminate against Kosovo, (c)
monetary policy, (d) defense, (e) foreign policy, (f) customs services, (g) federal
taxation, (h) federal elections, and (i) other areas specified in this Agreement.
4. The Republic of Serbia shall have competence in Kosovo as specified
in this Agreement, including in relation to Republic elections.
5. Citizens in Kosovo may continue to participate in areas in which the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia have competence through their
representation in relevant institutions, without prejudice to the exercise of competence
by Kosovo authorities set forth in this Agreement.
6. With respect to Kosovo:
(a) There shall be no changes to the borders of Kosovo;
(b) Deployment and use of police and security forces shall be governed
by Chapters 2 and 7 of this Agreement; and
(c) Kosovo shall have authority to conduct foreign relations within its
areas of responsibility equivalent to the power provided to Republics under Article 7 of
the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
7. There shall be no interference with the right of citizens and
national communities in Kosovo to call upon appropriate institutions of the Republic of
Serbia for the following purposes:
(a) assistance in designing school curricula and standards;
(b) participation in social benefits programs, such as care for war
veterans, pensioners, and disabled persons; and
(c) other voluntarily received services, provided that these services
are not related to police and security matters governed by Chapters 2 and 7 of this
Agreement, and that any Republic personnel serving in Kosovo pursuant to this paragraph
shall be unarmed service providers acting at the invitation of a national community in
The Republic shall have the authority to levy taxes or charges on those
citizens requesting services pursuant to this paragraph, as necessary to support the
provision of such services.
8. The basic territorial unit of local self-government in Kosovo shall
be the commune. All responsibilities in Kosovo not expressly assigned elsewhere shall be
the responsibility of the communes.
9. To preserve and promote democratic self-government in Kosovo, all
candidates for appointed, elective, or other public office, and all office holders, shall
meet the following criteria:
(a) No person who is serving a sentence imposed by the International
Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, and no person who is under indictment by the
Tribunal and who has failed to comply with an order to appear before the Tribunal, may
stand as a candidate or hold any office; and
(b) All candidates and office holders shall renounce violence as a
mechanism for achieving political goals; past political or resistance activities shall not
be a bar to holding office in Kosovo.
Article II: The Assembly
1. Kosovo shall have an Assembly, which shall be comprised of 120
(a) Eighty Members shall be directly elected.
(b) A further 40 Members shall be elected by the members of qualifying
(i) Communities whose members constitute more than 0.5 per cent of the
Kosovo population but less than 5 per cent shall have ten of these seats, to be divided
among them in accordance with their proportion of the overall population.
(ii) Communities whose members constitute more than 5 per cent of the
Kosovo population shall divide the remaining thirty seats equally. The Serb and Albanian
national communities shall be presumed to meet the 5 per cent population threshold.
2. Elections for all Members shall be conducted democratically,
consistent with the provisions of Chapter 3 of this Agreement. Members shall be elected
for a term of three years.
3. Allocation of seats in the Assembly shall be based on data gathered
in the census referred to in Chapter 5 of this Agreement. Prior to the completion of the
census, for purposes of this Article declarations of national community membership made
during voter registration shall be used to determine the percentage of the Kosovo
population that each national community represents.
4. Members of the Assembly shall be immune from all civil or criminal
proceedings on the basis of words expressed or other acts performed in their capacity as
Members of the Assembly.
Powers of the Assembly
5. The Assembly shall be responsible for enacting laws of Kosovo,
including in political, security, economic, social, educational, scientific, and cultural
areas as set out below and elsewhere in this Agreement. This Constitution and the laws of
the Kosovo Assembly shall not be subject to change or modification by authorities of the
Republics or the Federation.
(a) The Assembly shall be responsible for:
(i) Financing activities of Kosovo institutions, including by levying
taxes and duties on sources within Kosovo;
(ii)Adopting budgets of the Administrative organs and other
institutions of Kosovo, with the exception of communal and national community institutions
unless otherwise specified herein;
(iii) Adopting regulations concerning the organization and procedures
of the Administrative Organs of Kosovo;
(iv) Approving the list of Ministers of the Government, including the
(v) Coordinating educational arrangements in Kosovo, with respect for
the authorities of national communities and Communes;
(vi) Electing candidates for judicial office put forward by the
President of Kosovo;
(vii) Enacting laws ensuring free movement of goods, services, and
persons in Kosovo consistent with this Agreement;
(viii) Approving agreements concluded by the President within the areas
of responsibility of Kosovo;
(ix) Cooperating with the Federal Assembly, and with the Assemblies of
the Republics, and conducting relations with foreign legislative bodies;
(x) Establishing a framework for local self government;
(xi) Enacting laws concerning inter-communal issues and relations
between national communities, when necessary;
(xii)Enacting laws regulating the work of medical institutions and
(xiii)Protecting the environment, where intercommunal issues are
(xiv) Adopting programs of economic, scientific, technological,
demographic, regional, and social development, as well as urban planning;
(xv) Adopting programs for the development of agriculture and of rural
(xvi)Regulating elections consistent with Chapters 3 and 5;
(xvii)Regulating Kosovo-owned property; and
(xviii)Regulating land registries.
(b) The Assembly shall also have authority to enact laws in areas
within the responsibility of the Communes if the matter cannot be effectively regulated by
the Communes or if regulation by individual Communes might prejudice the rights of other
Communes. In the absence of a law enacted by the Assembly under this subparagraph that
preempts communal action, the Communes shall retain their authority.
6. Laws and other decisions of the Assembly shall be adopted by
majority of Members present and voting.
7. A majority of the Members of a single national community elected to
the Assembly pursuant to paragraph 1 (b) may adopt a motion that a law or other decision
adversely affects the vital interests of their national community. The challenged law or
decision shall be suspended with regard to that national community until the dispute
settlement procedure in paragraph 8 is completed.
8. The following procedure shall be used in the event of a motion under
(a) The Members making the vital interest motion shall give reasons for
their motion. The proposers of the legislation shall be given an opportunity to respond.
(b) The Members making the motion shall appoint within one day a
mediator of their choice to assist in reaching an agreement with those proposing the
(c) If mediation does not produce an agreement within seven days, the
matter may be submitted for a binding ruling. The decision shall be rendered by a panel
comprising three Members of the Assembly: one Albanian and one Serb, each appointed by his
or her national community delegation; and a third Member, who will be of a third
nationality and will be selected within two days by consensus of the Presidency of the
(i) A vital interest motion shall be upheld if the legislation
challenged adversely affects the community's fundamental constitutional rights, additional
rights as set forth in Article VII, or the principle of fair treatment.
(ii) If the motion is not upheld, the challenged legislation shall
enter into force for that community.
(d) Paragraph (c) shall not apply to the selection of Assembly
(e) The Assembly may exclude other decisions from this procedure by
means of a law enacted by a majority that includes a majority of each national community
elected pursuant to paragraph 1 (b).
9. A majority of the Members shall constitute a quorum. The Assembly
shall otherwise decide its own rules of procedure.
10. The Assembly shall elect from among its Members a Presidency, which
shall consist of a President, two Vice-Presidents, and other leaders in accordance with
the Assembly's rules of procedure. Each national community meeting the threshold specified
in paragraph 1 (b) (ii) shall be represented in the leadership. The President of the
Assembly shall not be from the same national community as the President of Kosovo.
11. The President of the Assembly shall represent it, call its sessions
to order, chair its meetings, coordinate the work of any committees it may establish, and
perform other tasks prescribed by the rules of procedure of the Assembly.
Article III: President of Kosovo
1. There shall be a President of Kosovo, who shall be elected by the
Assembly by vote of a majority of its Members. The President of Kosovo shall serve for a
three-year term. No person may serve more than two terms as President of Kosovo.
2. The President of Kosovo shall be responsible for:
(i) Representing Kosovo, including before any international or Federal
body or any body of the Republics;
(ii) Proposing to the Assembly candidates for Prime Minister, the
Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and other Kosovo judicial offices;
(iii) Meeting regularly with the democratically elected representatives
of the national communities;
(iv) Conducting foreign relations and concluding agreements within this
power consistent with the authorities of Kosovo institutions under this Agreement.Such
agreements shall only enter into force upon approval by the Assembly;
(v) Designating a representative to serve on the Joint Commission
established by Article 1.2 of Chapter 5 of this Agreement;
(vi) Meeting regularly with the Federal and Republic Presidents; and
(vii) Other functions specified herein or by law.
Article IV: Government and Administrative Organs
1. Executive power shall be exercised by the Government. The Government
shall be responsible for implementing the laws of Kosovo, and of other government
authorities when such responsibilities are devolved by those authorities. The Government
shall also have competence to propose laws to the Assembly.
(a) The Government shall consist of a Prime Minister and Ministers,
including at least one person from each national community meeting the threshold specified
in paragraph 1(b)(ii) of Article II. Ministers shall head the Administrative Organs of
(b) The candidate for Prime Minister proposed by the President shall
put forward a list of Ministers to the Assembly. The Prime Minister, together with the
list of Ministers, shall be approved by a majority of those present and voting in the
Assembly. In the event that the Prime Minister is not able to obtain a majority for the
Government, the President shall propose a new candidate for Prime Minister within ten
(c) The Government shall resign if a no confidence motion is adopted by
a vote of a majority of the members of the Assembly. If the Prime Minister or the
Government resigns, the President shall select a new candidate for Prime Minister who
shall seek to form a Government.
(d) The Prime Minister shall call meetings of the Government, represent
it as appropriate, and coordinate its work. Decisions of the Government shall require a
majority of Ministers present and voting. The Prime Minister shall cast the deciding vote
in the event Ministers are equally divided. The Government shall otherwise decide its own
rules of procedure.
2. Administrative Organs shall be responsible for assisting the
Government in carrying out its duties.
(a) National communities shall be fairly represented at all levels in
the Administrative Organs.
(b) Any citizen in Kosovo claiming to have been directly and adversely
affected by the decision of an executive or administrative body shall have the right to
judicial review of the legality of that decision after exhausting all avenues for
administrative review. The Assembly shall enact a law to regulate this review.
3. There shall be a Chief Prosecutor who shall be responsible for
prosecuting individuals who violate the criminal laws of Kosovo. He shall head an Office
of the Prosecutor, which shall at all levels have staff representative of the population
Article V: Judiciary
1. Kosovo shall have a Constitutional Court, a Supreme Court, District
Courts, and Communal Courts.
2. The Kosovo courts shall have jurisdiction over all matters arising
under this Constitution or the laws of Kosovo except as specified in paragraph 3. The
Kosovo courts shall also have jurisdiction over questions of federal law, subject to
appeal to the Federal courts on these questions after all appeals available under the
Kosovo system have been exhausted.
3. Citizens in Kosovo may opt to have civil disputes to which they are
party adjudicated by other courts in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which shall apply
the law applicable in Kosovo.
4. The following rules will apply to criminal cases:
(a) At the start of criminal proceedings, the defendant is entitled to
have his or her trial transferred to another Kosovo court that he or she designates.
(b) In criminal cases in which all defendants and victims are members
of the same national community, all members of the judicial council will be from a
national community of their choice if any party so requests.
(c) A defendant in a criminal case tried in Kosovo courts is entitled
to have at least one member of the judicial council hearing the case to be from his or her
national community. Kosovo authorities will consider and allow judges of other courts in
the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to serve as Kosovo judges for these purposes.
5. The Constitutional Court shall consist of nine judges. There shall
be at least one Constitutional Court judge from each national community meeting the
threshold specified in paragraph 1(b)(ii) of Article II. Until such time as the Parties
agree to discontinue this arrangement, 5 judges of the Constitutional Court shall be
selected from a list drawn up by the President of the European Court of Human Rights.
6. The Constitutional Court shall have authority to resolve disputes
relating to the meaning of this Constitution. That authority shall include, but is not
limited to, determining whether laws applicable in Kosovo, decisions or acts of the
President, the Assembly, the Government, the Communes, and the national communities are
compatible with this Constitution.
(a) Matters may be referred to the Constitutional Court by the
President of Kosovo, the President or Vice-Presidents of the Assembly, the ombudsman, the
communal assemblies and councils, and any national community acting according to its
(b) Any court which finds in the course of adjudicating a matter that
the dispute depends on the answer to a question within the Constitutional Court's
jurisdiction shall refer the issue to the Constitutional Court for a preliminary decision.
7. Following the exhaustion of other legal remedies, the Constitutional
Court shall at the request of any person claiming to be a victim have Jurisdiction over
complaints that human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rights of members of
national communities set forth in this Constitution have been violated by a public
8. The Constitutional Court shall have such other jurisdiction as may
be specified elsewhere in this Agreement or by law.
9. The Supreme Court shall consist of nine judges. There shall be at
least one Supreme Court judge from each national community meeting the threshold specified
in paragraph 1(b)(ii) of Article II.
10. The Supreme Court shall hear appeals from the District Courts and
the Communal Courts. Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the Supreme Court
shall be the court of final appeal for all cases arising under law applicable in Kosovo.
Its decisions shall be recognized and executed by all authorities in the Federal Republic
Functioning of the Courts
11. The Assembly shall determine the number of District and Communal
Court judges necessary to meet current needs.
12. Judges of all courts in Kosovo shall be distinguished jurists of
the highest moral character. They shall be broadly representative of the national
communities of Kosovo.
13. Removal of a Kosovo judge shall require the consensus of the judges
of the Constitutional Court. A Constitutional Court judge whose removal is in question
shall not participate in the decision on his case.
14. The Constitutional Court shall adopt rules for itself and for other
courts in Kosovo. The Constitutional and Supreme Courts shall each adopt decisions by
majority vote of their members.
15. Except as otherwise specified in their rules, all Kosovo courts
shall hold public proceedings. They shall issue published opinions setting forth the
reasons for their decisions.
Article VI: Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
1. All authorities in Kosovo shall ensure internationally recognized
human rights and fundamental freedoms.
2. The rights and freedoms set forth in the European Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols shall apply directly
in Kosovo. Other internationally recognized human rights instruments enacted into law by
the Kosovo Assembly shall also apply. These rights and freedoms shall have priority over
all other law.
3. All courts, agencies, governmental institutions, and other public
institutions of Kosovo or operating in relation to Kosovo shall conform to these human
rights and fundamental freedoms.
Article VII: National Communities
1. National communities and their members shall have additional rights
as set forth below in order to preserve and express their national, cultural, religious,
and linguistic identities in accordance with international standards and the Helsinki
Final Act. Such rights shall be exercised in conformity with human rights and fundamental
2. Each national community may elect, through democratic means and in a
manner consistent with the principles of Chapter 3 of this Agreement, institutions to
administer its affairs in Kosovo.
3. The national communities shall be subject to the laws applicable in
Kosovo, provided that any act or decision concerning national communities must be
nondiscriminatory. The Assembly shall decide upon a procedure for resolving disputes
between national communities.
4. The additional rights of the national communities, acting through
their democratically elected institutions, are to:
(a) preserve and protect their national, cultural, religious, and
linguistic identities, including by:
(i) inscribing local names of towns and villages, of squares and
streets, and of other topographic names in the language and alphabet of the national
community in addition to signs in Albanian and Serbian, consistent with decisions about
style made by the communal institutions;
(ii) providing information in the language and alphabet of the national
(iii) providing for education and establishing educational
institutions, in particular for schooling in their own language and alphabet and in
national culture and history, for which relevant authorities will provide financial
assistance; curricula shall reflect a spirit of tolerance between national communities and
respect for the rights of members of all national communities in accordance with
(iv) enjoying unhindered contacts with representatives of their
respective national communities, within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and abroad;
(v) using and displaying national symbols, including symbols of the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia;
(vi) protecting national traditions on family law by, if the community
decides, arranging rules in the field of inheritance; family and matrimonial relations;
tutorship; and adoption;
(vii) the preservation of sites of religious, historical, or cultural
importance to the national community in cooperation with other authorities;
(viii) implementing public health and social services on a
non-discriminatory basis as to citizens and national communities;
(ix) operating religious institutions in cooperation with religious
(x) participating in regional and international non-governmental
organizations in accordance with
procedures of these organizations;
(b) be guaranteed access to, and representation in, public broadcast
media, including provisions for separate programming in relevant languages under the
direction of those nominated by the respective national community on a fair and equitable
(c) finance their activities by collecting contributions the national
communities may decide to levy on members of their own communities.
5. Members of national communities shall also be individually
(a) the right to enjoy unhindered contacts with members of their
respective national communities elsewhere in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and
(b) equal access to employment in public services at all levels;
(c) the right to use their languages and alphabets;
(d) the right to use and display national community symbols;
(e) the right to participate in democratic institutions that will
determine the national community's exercise of the collective rights set forth in this
(f) the right to establish cultural and religious associations, for
which relevant authorities will provide financial assistance.
6. Each national community and, where appropriate, their members acting
individually may exercise these additional rights through Federal institutions and
institutions of the Republics, in accordance with the procedures of those institutions and
without prejudice to the ability of Kosovo institutions to carry out their
7. Every person shall have the right freely to choose to be treated or
not to be treated as belonging to a national community, and no disadvantage shall result
from that choice or from the exercise of the rights connected to that choice.
Article VIII: Communes
1. Kosovo shall have the existing communes. Changes may be made to
communal boundaries by act of the Kosovo Assembly after consultation with the authorities
of the communes concerned.
2. Communes may develop relationships among themselves for their mutual
3. Each commune shall have an Assembly, an Executive Council, and such
administrative bodies as the commune may establish.
(a) Each national community whose membership constitutes at least three
percent of the population of the commune shall be represented on the Council in proportion
to its share of the communal population or by one member, whichever is greater.
(b) Prior to the completion of a census, disputes over communal
population percentages for purposes of this paragraph shall be resolved by reference to
declarations of national community membership in the voter registry.
4. The communes shall have responsibility for:
(a) law enforcement, as specified in Chapter 2 of this Agreement;
(b) regulating and, when appropriate, providing child care;
(c) providing education, consistent with the rights and duties of
national communities, and in a spirit of tolerance between national communities and
respect for the rights of the members of all national communities in accordance with
(d) protecting the communal environment;
(e) regulating commerce and privately-owned stores;
(f) regulating hunting and fishing;
(g) planning and carrying out public works of communal importance,
including roads and water supplies, and participating in the planning and carrying out of
Kosovo-wide public works projects in coordination with other communes and Kosovo
(h) regulating land use, town planning, building regulations, and
(i) developing programs for tourism, the hotel industry, catering, and
(j) organizing fairs and local markets;
(k) organizing public services of communal importance, including fire,
emergency response, and police consistent with Chapter 2 of this Agreement; and
(l) financing the work of communal institutions, including raising
revenues, taxes, and preparing budgets.
5. The communes shall also have responsibility for all other areas
within Kosovo's authority not expressly assigned elsewhere herein, subject to the
provisions of Article II.5(b) of this Constitution.
6. Each commune shall conduct its business in public and shall maintain
publicly available records of its deliberations and decisions.
Article IX: Representation
1. Citizens in Kosovo shall have the right to participate in the
(a) At least 10 deputies in the House of Citizens of the Federal
(b) At least 20 deputies in the National Assembly of the Republic of
2. The modalities of elections for the deputies specified in paragraph
1 shall be determined by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia
respectively, under procedures to be agreed with the Chief of the Implementation Mission.
3. The Assembly shall have the opportunity to present to the
appropriate authorities a list of candidates from which shall be drawn:
(a) At least one citizen in Kosovo to serve in the Federal Government,
and at least one citizen in Kosovo to serve in the Government of the Republic of Serbia;
(b) At least one judge on the Federal Constitutional Court, one judge
on the Federal Court, and three judges on the Supreme Court of Serbia.
Article X: Amendment
1. The Assembly may by a majority of two-thirds of its Members, which
majority must include a majority of the Members elected from each national community
pursuant to Article II.1(b)(ii), adopt amendments to this Constitution.
2. There shall, however, be no amendments to Article 1.3-8 or to this
Article, nor shall any amendment diminish the rights granted by Articles VI and VII.
Article XI: Entry into Force
This Constitution shall enter into force upon signature of this
Police and Civil Public Security
Article I: General Principles
1. All law enforcement agencies, organizations and personnel of the
Parties, which for purposes of this Chapter will include customs and border police
operating in Kosovo, shall act in compliance with this Agreement and shall observe
internationally recognized standards of human rights and due process. In exercising their
functions, law enforcement personnel shall not discriminate on any ground, such as sex,
race, color, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
association with a national community, property, birth or other status.
2. The Parties invite the Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE) through its Implementation Mission (IM) to monitor and supervise
implementation of this Chapter and related provisions of this Agreement. The Chief of the
Implementation Mission (CIM) or his designee shall have the authority to issue binding
directives to the Parties and subsidiary bodies on police and civil public security
matters to obtain compliance by the Parties with the terms of this Chapter. The Parties
agree to cooperate fully with the IM and to comply with its directives. Personnel assigned
to police-related duties within the IM shall be permitted to wear a uniform while serving
in this part of the mission.
3. In carrying out his responsibilities, the CIM will inform and
consult KFOR as appropriate.
4. The IM shall have the authority to:
(a) Monitor, observe, and inspect law enforcement activities,
personnel, and facilities, including border police and customs units, as well as
associated judicial organizations, structures, and proceedings;
(b) Advise law enforcement personnel and forces, including border
police and customs units, and, when necessary to bring them into compliance with this
Agreement, including this Chapter, issue appropriate binding directions in coordination
(c) Participate in and guide the training of law enforcement personnel;
(d) In coordination with KFOR, assess threats to public order;
(e) Advise and provide guidance to governmental authorities on how to
deal with threats to public order and on the organization of effective civilian law
(f) Accompany the Parties' law enforcement personnel as they carry out
their responsibilities, as the IM deems appropriate;
(g) Dismiss or discipline public security personnel of the Parties for
(h) Request appropriate law enforcement support from the international
community to enable IM to carry out the duties assigned in this Chapter.
5. All Kosovo, Republic and Federal law enforcement and Federal
military authorities shall be obligated, in their respective areas of authority, to ensure
freedom of movement and safe passage for all persons, vehicles and goods. This obligation
includes a duty to permit the unobstructed passage into Kosovo of police equipment which
has been approved by the CIM and COMKFOR for use by Kosovo police, and of any other
support provided under subparagraph 4(h) above.
6. The Parties undertake to provide one another mutual assistance, when
requested, in the surrender of those accused of committing criminal acts within a Party's
jurisdiction, and in the investigation and prosecution of offenses across the boundary of
Kosovo with other parts of the FRY. The Parties shall develop agreed procedures
and mechanisms for responding to these requests. The CIM or his
designee shall resolve disputes on these matters.
7. The IM shall aim to transfer law enforcement responsibilities
described in Article II below to the law enforcement officials and organizations described
in Article II at the earliest practical time consistent with civil public security.
Article II: Communal Police
1. As they build up, communal police units, organized and stationed at
the communal and municipal levels, shall assume primary responsibility for law enforcement
in Kosovo. The specific responsibilities of the communal police will include police
patrols and crime prevention, criminal investigations, arrest and detention of criminal
suspects, crowd control, and traffic control.
2. Number and Composition. The total number of communal police
established by this Agreement operating within Kosovo shall not exceed 3,000 active duty
law enforcement officers. However, the CIM shall have the authority to increase or
decrease this personnel ceiling if he determines such action is necessary to meet
operational needs. Prior to taking any such action, the CIM shall consult with the
Criminal Justice Administration and other officials as appropriate. The national
communities in each commune shall be fairly represented in the communal police unit.
3. Criminal Justice Administration.
(a) A Criminal Justice Administration (CJA) shall be established. It
shall be an Administrative Organ of Kosovo, reporting to an appropriate member of the
Government of Kosovo as determined by the Government. The CJA shall provide general
coordination of law enforcement operations in Kosovo. Specific functions of the CJA shall
include general supervision over, and providing guidance to, communal police forces
through their commanders, assisting in the coordination between separate communal police
forces, and oversight of the operations of the police academy. In carrying out these
responsibilities, the CJA may issue directives, which shall be binding on communal police
commanders and personnel. In the exercise of its functions, the CJA shall be subject to
any directions given by CIM.
(b) Within twelve months of the establishment of the CJA, the CJA shall
submit for review by the CIM a plan for the coordination and development of law
enforcement bodies and personnel in Kosovo within its jurisdiction. This plan shall serve
as the framework for law enforcement coordination and development in Kosovo and be subject
to modification by the CIM.
(c) The IM will endeavor to develop the capacities of the CJA as
quickly as possible. Prior to the point when the CJA is able to properly carry out the
functions described in the preceding paragraph, as determined by the CIM, the IM shall
carry out these functions.
4.Communal Commanders. Subject to review by the CIM, each commune
will appoint, and may remove for cause, by majority vote of the communal council, a
communal police commander with responsibility for police operations within the commune.
5. Service in Police.
(a) Recruitment for public security personnel will be conducted
primarily at the local level. Local and communal governments, upon consultation with
communal Criminal Justice Commissions, will nominate officer candidates to attend the
Kosovo Police Academy. Offers of employment will be made by communal police commanders,
with the concurrence of the academy director, only after the candidate has successfully
completed the academy basic recruit course.
(b) Recruitment, selection and training of communal police officers
shall be conducted under the direction of the IM during the period of its operation.
(c) There shall be no bar to service in the communal police based on
prior political activities. Members of the police shall not, however, be permitted while
they hold this public office to participate in party political activities other than
membership in such a party.
(d) Continued service in the police is dependent upon behavior
consistent with the terms of this Agreement, including this Chapter. The IM shall
supervise regular reviews of officer performance, which shall be conducted in accordance
with international due process norms.
6. Uniforms and Equipment.
(a) All communal police officers, with the exception of officers
participating in crowd control functions, shall wear a standard uniform. Uniforms shall
include a badge, picture identification, and name tag.
(b) Communal police officers may be equipped with a sidearm, handcuffs,
a baton, and a radio.
(c) Subject to authorization or modification by the CIM, each commune
may maintain, either at the communal headquarters or at municipal stations, no more than
one long-barreled weapon not to exceed 7.62 mm. for every fifteen police officers assigned
to the commune. Each such weapon must be approved by and registered with the IM and KFOR
pursuant to procedures established by the CIM and COMKFOR. When not in use, all such
weapons will be securely stored and each commune will keep a registry of these weapons.
(i) In the event of a serious law enforcement threat that would justify
the use of these weapons, the communal police commander shall obtain IM approval before
employing these weapons.
(ii) The communal police commander may authorize the use of these
weapons without prior approval of the IM for the sole purpose of self-defense. In such
cases, he must report the incident no later than one hour after it occurs to the IM and
(iii) If the CIM determines that a weapon has been used by a member of
a communal police force in a manner contrary to this Chapter, he may take appropriate
corrective measures; such measures may include reducing the number of such weapons that
the communal police force is allowed to possess or dismissing or disciplining the law
enforcement personnel involved.
(d) Communal police officers engaged in crowd control functions will
receive equipment appropriate to their task, including batons, helmets and shields,
subject to IM approval.
Article III: Interim Police Academy
1. Under the supervision of the IM, the CJA shall establish an interim
Police Academy that will offer mandatory and professional development training for all
public security personnel, including border police. Until the interim police academy is
established, IM will oversee a temporary training program for public security personnel
including border police.
2. All public security personnel shall be required to complete a course
of police studies successfully before serving as communal police officers.
3. The Academy shall be headed by a Director appointed and removed by
the CJA in consultation with the Kosovo Criminal Justice Commission and the IM. The
Director shall consult closely with the IM and comply fully with its recommendations and
4. All Republic and Federal police training facilities in Kosovo,
including the academy at Vucitrn, will cease operations within 6 months of the entry into
force of this Agreement.
Article IV: Criminal Justice Commissions
1. The parties shall establish a Kosovo Criminal Justice Commission and
Communal Criminal Justice Commissions. The CIM or his designee shall chair meetings of
these Commissions. They shall be forums for cooperation, coordination and the resolution
of disputes concerning law enforcement and civil public security in Kosovo.
2. The functions of the Commissions shall include the following:
(a) Monitor, review, and make recommendations regarding the operation
of law enforcement personnel and policies in Kosovo, including communal police units;
(b) Review, and make recommendations regarding the recruitment,
selection and training of communal police officers and commanders;
(c) Consider complaints regarding police
practices filed by individuals or national communities, and provide information and
recommendations to communal police commanders and the CIM for consideration in their
reviews of officer performance; and
(d) In the Kosovo Criminal Justice Commission only: In consultation
with designated local, Republic and Federal police liaisons, monitor jurisdiction sharing
in cases of overlapping criminal jurisdiction between Kosovo, Republic and Federal
3. The membership of the Kosovo Criminal Justice Commission and each
Communal Criminal Justice Commission shall be representative of the population and shall
(a) In the Kosovo Criminal Justice Commission:
(i) a representative of each commune;
(ii) the head of the Kosovo CJA;
(iii) a representative of each Republic and Federal law enforcement
component operating in Kosovo (for example, Customs police and Border police);
(iv) a representative of each national community;
(v) a representative of the IM, during its period of operation in
(vi) a representative of the Vi border guard, as appropriate;
(vii) a representative of the MUP, as appropriate, while present in
(viii) A representative of KFOR, as appropriate.
(b) In the Communal Criminal Justice Commissions:
(i) the communal police commander;
(ii) a representative of any Republic and Federal law enforcement
component operating in the commune;
(iii) a representative of each national community;
(iv) a civilian representative of the communal government;
(v) a representative of the IM, during its period of operation in
(vi) a representative of the VJ border guard, who shall have observer
status, as appropriate; and
(vii) A representative of KFOR, as appropriate.
4. Each Criminal Justice Commission shall meet at least monthly, or at
the request of any Commission member.
Article V: Police Operations in Kosovo
1. The communal police established by this Agreement shall have
exclusive law enforcement authority and jurisdiction and shall be the only police presence
in Kosovo following the reduction and eventual withdrawal from Kosovo by the MUP, with the
exception of border police as specified in Article VI and any support provided pursuant to
(a) During the transition to communal police, the remaining MUP shall
carry out only normal policing duties, and shall draw down, pursuant to the schedule
described in Chapter 7.
(b) During the period of the phased drawdown of the MUP, the MUP in
Kosovo shall have authority to conduct only civil police functions and shall be under the
supervision and control of the CIM. The IM may dismiss from service, or take other
appropriate disciplinary action against, MUP personnel who obstruct implementation of this
2. Concurrent Law Enforcement in Kosovo.
(a) Except as provided in Article V.1 and Article VI, Federal and
Republic law enforcement officials may only act within Kosovo in cases of hot pursuit of a
person suspected of committing a serious criminal offense.
(i) Federal and Republic authorities shall as soon as practicable, but
in no event later than one hour after their entry into Kosovo while engaged in a hot
pursuit, notify the nearest Kosovo law enforcement officials that the pursuit has crossed
into Kosovo. Once notification has been made, further pursuit and apprehension shall be
coordinated with Kosovo law enforcement. Following apprehension, suspects shall be placed
into the custody of the authorities originating the pursuit. If the suspect has not been
apprehended within four hours, the original pursuing authorities shall cease their pursuit
and immediately depart Kosovo unless invited to continue their pursuit by the CJA or the
(ii) In the event the pursuit is of such short duration as to preclude
notification, Kosovo law enforcement officials shall be notified that an apprehension has
been made and shall be given access to the detainee prior to his removal from Kosovo.
(iii) Personnel engaged in hot pursuit under the provisions of this Article
may only be civilian police, may only carry weapons appropriate for normal civilian
police duties (sidearms, and long-barreled weapons not to exceed 7.62mm), may only travel
in officially marked police vehicles, and may not exceed a total of eight personnel at any
one time. Travel in armored personnel carriers by police engaged in hot pursuit is
(iv) The same rules shall apply to hot pursuit of suspects by Kosovo
law enforcement authorities to Federal territory outside of Kosovo.
(b) All Parties shall provide the highest degree of mutual assistance
in law enforcement matters in response to reasonable requests.
Article VI: Security on International Borders
1. The Government of the FRY will maintain official border crossings on
its international borders (Albania and FYROM).
2. Personnel from the organizations listed below may be present along
Kosovo's international borders and at international border crossings, and may not act
outside the scope of the authorities specified in this Chapter.
(a) Republic of Serbia Border Police
(i) The Border Police shall continue to exercise authority at Kosovo's
international border crossings and in connection with the enforcement of Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia immigration laws. The total number of border police shall be drawn down to
75 within 14 days of entry into force of this Agreement.
(ii) While maintaining the personnel threshold specified in
subparagraph (i), the ranks of the existing Border Police units operating in Kosovo shall
be supplemented by new recruits so that they are representative of the Kosovo population.
(iii) All Border Police stationed in Kosovo must attend police training
at the Kosovo police academy within 18 months of the entry into force of this Agreement.
(b) Customs Officers
(i) The FRY Customs Service will continue to exercise customs
jurisdiction at Kosovo's official international border crossings and in such customs
warehouses as may be necessary within Kosovo. The total number of customs personnel shall
be drawn down to 50 within 14 days of the entry into force of this Agreement.
(ii) Kosovar Albanian officers of the Customs Service shall be trained
and compensated by the FRY.
(c) The CIM shall conduct a periodic review of
customs and border police requirements and shall have the authority to increase or
decrease the personnel ceilings described in paragraphs (a)(i) and (b)(i) above to reflect
operational needs and to adjust the composition of individual customs units.
Article VII: Arrest and Detention
1. Except pursuant to Article V, Article I(3)(h), and sections (a)-(b)
of this paragraph, only officers of the communal police shall have authority to arrest and
detain individuals in Kosovo.
(a) Border Police officers shall have authority within Kosovo to arrest
and detain individuals who have violated criminal provisions of the immigration laws.
(b) Officers of the Customs Service shall have authority within Kosovo
to arrest and detain individuals for criminal violations of the customs laws.
2. Immediately upon making an arrest, the arresting officer shall
notify the nearest Communal Criminal Justice Commission of the detention and the location
of the detainee. He subsequently shall transfer the detainee to the nearest appropriate
jail in Kosovo at the earliest opportunity.
3. Officers may use reasonable and necessary force proportionate to the
circumstances to effect arrests and keep suspects in custody.
4. Kosovo and its constituent communes shall establish jails and
prisons to accommodate the detention of criminal suspects and the imprisonment of
individuals convicted of violating the laws applicable in Kosovo. Prisons shall be
operated consistent with international standards. Access shall be provided to
international personnel, including representatives of the International Committee of the
Article VIII: Administration of Justice
1. Criminal Jurisdiction over Persons Arrested within Kosovo.
(a) Except in accordance with Article V and subparagraph (b) of this
paragraph, any person arrested within Kosovo shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the
(b) Any person arrested within Kosovo, in accordance with the law and
with this Agreement, by the Border Police or Customs Police shall be subject to the
jurisdiction of the FRY courts. If there is no applicable court of the FRY to hear the
case, the Kosovo courts shall have jurisdiction.
2. Prosecution of Crimes
(a) The CJA shall, in consultation with the CIM, appoint and have the
authority to remove the Chief Prosecutor.
(b) The IM shall have the authority to monitor, observe, inspect, and
when necessary, direct the operations of the Office of the Prosecutor and any and all
Article IX: Final Authority to Interpret
The CIM is the final authority regarding interpretation of this Chapter
and his determinations are binding on all Parties and persons.
Conduct and Supervision of Elections
Article I: Conditions for Elections
1. The Parties shall ensure that conditions exist for the organization
of free and fair elections, which include but are not limited to:
- freedom of movement for all citizens;
b) an open and free political environment;
c) an environment conducive to the return of displaced persons;
d) a safe and secure environment that ensures freedom of assembly,
association, and expression;
e) an electoral legal framework of rules and
regulations complying with OSCE commitments, which will be implemented by a Central
Election Commission, as set forth in Article III, which is representative of the
population of Kosovo in terms of national communities and political parties; and
f) free media, effectively
accessible to registered political parties and candidates, and available to voters
2. The Parties request the OSCE to certify when elections will be
effective under current conditions in Kosovo, and to provide assistance to the Parties to
create conditions for free and fair elections.
3. The Parties shall comply fully with Paragraphs 7 and 8 of the OSCE
Copenhagen Document, which are attached to this Chapter.
Article II: Role of the OSCE
1. The Parties request the OSCE to adopt and put in place an elections
program for Kosovo and supervise elections as set forth in this Agreement.
2. The Parties request the OSCE to supervise, in a manner to be
determined by the OSCE and in cooperation with other international organizations the OSCE
deems necessary, the preparation and conduct of elections for:
a) Members of the Kosovo Assembly;
b) Members of Communal Assemblies;
c) Other officials popularly elected in Kosovo under this Agreement and
the laws and Constitution of Kosovo at the discretion of the OSCE.
3. The Parties request the OSCE to establish a Central Election
Commission in Kosovo ("the Commission").
4. Consistent with Article IV of Chapter 5, the first elections shall
be held within nine months of the entry into force of this Agreement. The President of the
Commission shall decide, in consultation with the Parties, the exact timing and order of
elections for Kosovo political offices.
Article III: Central Election Commission
1. The Commission shall adopt electoral Rules and Regulations on all
matters necessary for the conduct of free and fair elections in Kosovo, including rules
relating to: the eligibility and registration of candidates, parties, and voters,
including displaced persons and refugees; ensuring a free and fair elections campaign;
administrative and technical preparation for elections including the establishment,
publication, and certification of election results; and the role of international and
domestic election observers.
2 The responsibilities of the Commission, as provided in the electoral
Rules and Regulations, shall include:
a) the preparation, conduct, and supervision of all aspects of the
electoral process, including development and supervision of political party and voter
registration, and creation of secure and transparent procedures for production and
dissemination of ballots and sensitive election materials, vote counts, tabulations, and
publication of elections results;
b) ensuring compliance with the electoral Rules and Regulations
established pursuant to this Agreement, including establishing auxiliary bodies for this
purpose as necessary;
c) ensuring that action is taken to remedy any violation of any
provision of this Agreement, including imposing penalties such as removal from candidate
or party lists, against any person, candidate, political party, or body that violates such
d) accrediting observers, including personnel from international
organizations and foreign and domestic non-governmental organizations, and ensuring that
the Parties grant the accredited observers unimpeded access and movement.
3. The Commission shall consist of a person appointed by the
Chairman-in-Office (CIO) of the OSCE, representatives of all national communities, and
representatives of political parties in Kosovo selected by criteria to be determined by
the Commission. The person appointed by the CIO shall act as the President of the
Commission. The rules of procedure of the Commission shall provide that in the exceptional
circumstance of an unresolved dispute within the Commission, the decision of the President
shall be final and binding.
4. The Commission shall enjoy the right to establish communication
facilities, and to engage local and administrative staff.
1. The economy of Kosovo shall function in accordance with free market
2. The authorities established to levy and collect taxes and other
charges are set forth in this Agreement. Except as otherwise expressly provided, all
authorities have the right to keep all revenues from their own taxes or other charges
consistent with this Agreement.
3. Certain revenue from Kosovo taxes and duties shall accrue to the
Communes, taking into account the need for an equalization of revenues between the
Communes based on objective criteria. The Assembly of Kosovo shall enact appropriate
non-discriminatory legislation for this purpose. The Communes may also levy local taxes in
accordance with this Agreement.
4. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia shall be responsible for the
collection of all customs duties at international borders in Kosovo. There shall be no
impediments to the free movement of persons, goods, services, and capital to and from
5. Federal authorities shall ensure that Kosovo receives a
proportionate and equitable share of benefits that may be derived from international
agreements concluded by the Federal Republic and of Federal resources.
6. Federal and other authorities shall within their respective powers
and responsibilities ensure the free movement of persons, goods, services, and capital to
Kosovo, including from international sources. They shall in particular allow access to
Kosovo without discrimination for persons delivering such goods and services.
7. If expressly required by an international donor or lender,
international contracts for reconstruction projects shall be concluded by the authorities
of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which shall establish appropriate mechanisms to
make such funds available to Kosovo authorities. Unless precluded by the terms of
contracts, all reconstruction projects that exclusively concern Kosovo shall be managed
and implemented by the appropriate Kosovo authority.
1. The Parties agree to reallocate ownership and resources in
accordance insofar as possible with the distribution of powers and responsibilities set
forth in this Agreement, in the following areas:
(a) government-owned assets (including educational institutions,
hospitals, natural resources, and production facilities);
(b) pension and social insurance contributions;
(c) revenues to be distributed under Article 1.5; and
(d) any other matters relating to economic relations between the
Parties not covered by this Agreement.
2. The Parties agree to the creation of a Claim Settlement Commission
(CSC) to resolve all disputes between them on matters referred to in paragraph 1.
(a) The CSC shall consist of three experts designated by Kosovo, three
experts designated jointly by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of
Serbia, and three independent experts designated by the CIM.
(b) The decisions of the CSC, which shall be taken by majority vote,
shall be final and binding. The Parties shall implement them without delay.
3. Authorities receiving ownership of public facilities shall have the
power to operate such facilities.
Chapter 4 A
Humanitarian Assistance, Reconstruction and Economic Development
1. In parallel with the continuing full implementation of this
Agreement, urgent attention must be focused on meeting the real humanitarian and economic
needs of Kosovo in order to help create the conditions for reconstruction and lasting
economic recovery. International assistance will be provided without discrimination
between national communities.
2. The Parties welcome the willingness of the European Commission
working with the international community to co-ordinate international support for the
parties' efforts. Specifically, the European Commission will organize an international
donors' conference within one month of entry into force of this Agreement.
3. The international community will provide immediate and unconditional
humanitarian assistance, focusing primarily on refugees and internally displaced persons
returning to their former homes. The Parties welcome and endorse the UNHCR's lead role in
co-ordination of this effort, and endorse its intention, in close co-operation with the
Implementation Mission, to plan an early, peaceful, orderly and phased return of refugees
and displaced persons in conditions of safety and dignity.
4 . The international community will provide the means for the rapid
improvement of living conditions for the population of Kosovo through the reconstruction
and rehabilitation of housing and local infrastructure (including water, energy, health
and local education infrastructure) based on damage assessment surveys.
5. Assistance will also be provided to support the establishment and
development of the institutional and legislative framework laid down in this Agreement,
including local governance and tax settlement, and to reinforce civil society, culture and
education. Social welfare will also be addressed, with priority given to the protection of
vulnerable social groups.
6. It will also be vital to lay the foundations for sustained
development, based on a revival of the local economy. This must take account of the need
to address unemployment, and to stimulate the economy by a range of mechanisms. The
European Commission will be giving urgent attention to this.
7. International assistance, with the exception of humanitarian aid,
will be subject to full compliance with this Agreement as well as other conditionalities
defined in advance by the donors and the absorptive capacity of Kosovo.
Article I: Institutions
1. The Parties invite the OSCE, in cooperation with the European Union,
to constitute an Implementation Mission in Kosovo. All responsibilities and powers
previously vested in the Kosovo Verification Mission and its Head by prior agreements
shall be continued in the Implementation Mission and its Chief.
2. A Joint Commission shall serve as the central mechanism for
monitoring and coordinating the civilian implementation of this Agreement. It shall
consist of the Chief of the Implementation Mission (CIM), one Federal and one Republic
representative, one representative of each national community in Kosovo, the President of
the Assembly, and a representative of the President of Kosovo. Meetings of the Joint
Commission may be attended by other representatives of organizations specified in this
Agreement or needed for its implementation.
3. The CIM shall serve as the Chair of the Joint Commission. The Chair
shall coordinate and organize the work of the Joint Commission and decide the time and
place of its meetings. The Parties shall abide by and fully implement the decisions of the
Joint Commission. The Joint Commission shall operate on the basis of consensus, but in the
event consensus cannot be reached, the Chair's decision shall be final.
4. The Chair shall have full and unimpeded access to all places,
persons, and information (including documents and other records) within Kosovo that in his
judgment are necessary to his responsibilities with regard to the civilian aspects of this
Joint Council and Local Councils
5. The CIM may, as necessary, establish a Kosovo Joint Council and
Local Councils, for informal dispute resolution and cooperation. The Kosovo Joint Council
would consist of one member from each of the national communities in Kosovo. Local
Councils would consist of representatives of each national community living in the
locality where the Local Council is established.
Article II: Responsibilities and Powers
1. The CIM shall:
(a) supervise and direct the implementation of the civilian aspects of
this Agreement pursuant to a schedule that he shall specify;
(b) maintain close contact with the Parties to promote full compliance
with those aspects of this Agreement;
(c) facilitate, as he deems necessary, the resolution of difficulties
arising in connection with such implementation;
(d) participate in meetings of donor organizations, including on issues
of rehabilitation and reconstruction, in particular by putting forward proposals and
identifying priorities for their consideration as appropriate;
(e) coordinate the activities of civilian organizations and agencies in
Kosovo assisting in the implementation of the civilian aspects of this Agreement,
respecting fully their specific organizational procedures;
(f) report periodically to the bodies responsible for constituting the
Mission on progress in the implementation of the civilian aspects of this Agreement; and
(g) carry out the functions specified in this Agreement pertaining to
police and security forces.
2. The CIM shall also carry out other responsibilities set forth in
this Agreement or as may be later agreed.
Article III: Status of Implementation Mission
1. Implementation Mission personnel shall be allowed unrestricted
movement and access into and throughout Kosovo at any time.
2. The Parties shall facilitate the operations of the Implementation
Mission, including by the provision of assistance as requested with regard to
transportation, subsistence, accommodation, communication, and other facilities.
3. The Implementation Mission shall enjoy such legal capacity as may be
necessary for the exercise of its functions under the laws and regulations of Kosovo, the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and the Republic of Serbia. Such legal capacity shall
include the capacity to contract, and to acquire and dispose of real and personal
4. Privileges and immunities are hereby accorded as follows to the
Implementation Mission and associated personnel:
(a) the Implementation Mission and its premises, archives, and other
property shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as a diplomatic mission under the
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations;
(b) the CIM and professional members of his staff and their families
shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by diplomatic agents and
their families under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations; and
(c) other members of the Implementation Mission staff and their
families shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by members of the
administrative and technical staff and their families under the Vienna Convention on
Article IV: Process of Implementation
1. The Parties acknowledge that complete implementation will require
political acts and measures, and the election and establishment of institutions and bodies
set forth in this Agreement. The Parties agree to proceed expeditiously with these tasks
on a schedule set by the Joint Commission. The Parties shall provide active support,
cooperation, and participation for the successful implementation of this Agreement.
Elections and Census
2. within nine months of the entry into force of this Agreement, there
shall be elections in accordance with and pursuant to procedures specified in Chapter 3 of
this Agreement for authorities established herein, according to a voter list prepared to
international standards by the Central Election Commission. The Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) shall supervise those elections to ensure that they are
free and fair.
3. Under the supervision of the OSCE and with the participation of
Kosovo authorities and experts nominated by and belonging to the national communities of
Kosovo, Federal authorities shall conduct an objective and free census of the population
in Kosovo under rules and regulations agreed with the OSCE in accordance with
international standards. The census shall be carried out when the OSCE determines that
conditions allow an objective and accurate enumeration.
(a) The first census shall be limited to name, place of birth, place of
usual residence and address, gender, age, citizenship, national community, and religion.
(b) The authorities of the Parties shall provide each other and the
OSCE with all records necessary to conduct the census, including data about places of
residence, citizenship, voters' lists, and other information.
4. All laws and regulations in effect in Kosovo when this Agreement
enters into force shall remain in effect unless and until replaced by laws or regulations
adopted by a competent body. All laws and regulations applicable in Kosovo that are
incompatible with this Agreement shall be presumed to have been harmonized with this
Agreement. In particular, martial law in Kosovo is hereby revoked.
5. Institutions currently in place in Kosovo shall remain until
superseded by bodies created by or in accordance with this Agreement. The CIM may
recommend to the appropriate authorities the removal and appointment of officials and the
curtailment of operations of existing institutions in Kosovo if he deems it necessary for
the effective implementation of this Agreement. If the action recommended is not taken in
the time requested, the Joint Commission may decide to take the recommended action.
6. Prior to the election of Kosovo officials pursuant to this
Agreement, the CIM shall take the measures necessary to ensure the development and
functioning of independent media in keeping with international standards, including
allocation of radio and television frequencies.
Article V: Authority to Interpret
The CIM shall be the final authority in theater regarding
interpretation of the civilian aspects of this Agreement, and the Parties agree to abide
by his determinations as binding on all Parties and persons.
Article I: General
1. There shall be an Ombudsman, who shall monitor the realization of
the rights of members of national communities and the protection of human rights and
fundamental freedoms in Kosovo. The Ombudsman shall have unimpeded access to any person or
place and shall have the right to appear and intervene before any domestic, Federal, or
(consistent with the rules of such bodies) international authority upon his or her
request. No person, institution, or entity of the Parties may interfere with the functions
of the Ombudsman.
2. The Ombudsman shall be an eminent person of high moral standing who
possesses a demonstrated commitment to human rights and the rights of members of
national communities. He or she shall be nominated by the President of Kosovo and
shall be elected by the Assembly from a list of candidates prepared by the President of
the European Court of Human Rights for a non-renewable three-year term. The Ombudsman
shall not be a citizen of any State or entity that was a part of the former Yugoslavia, or
of any neighboring State. Pending the election of the President and the Assembly, the CIM
shall designate a person to serve as Ombudsman on an interim basis who shall be succeeded
by a person selected pursuant to the procedure set forth in this paragraph.
3. The Ombudsman shall be independently responsible for choosing his or
her own staff. He or she shall have two Deputies. The Deputies shall each be drawn from
different national communities.
(a) The salaries and expenses of the Ombudsman and his or her staff
shall be determined and paid by the Kosovo Assembly. The salaries and expenses shall be
fully adequate to implement the Ombudsman's mandate.
(b) The Ombudsman and members of his or her staff shall not be held
criminally or civilly liable for any acts carried out within the scope of their duties.
Article II: Jurisdiction
The Ombudsman shall consider:
(a) alleged or apparent violations of human rights and fundamental
freedoms in Kosovo, as provided in the Constitutions of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
and the Republic of Serbia, and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights
and Fundamental Freedoms and the Protocols thereto; and
(b) alleged or apparent violations of the rights of members of national
communities specified in this Agreement.
2. All persons in Kosovo shall have the right to submit complaints to
the Ombudsman. The Parties agree not to take any measures to punish persons who intend to
submit or who have submitted such allegations, or in any other way to deter the exercise
of this right.
Article III: Powers and Duties
1. The Ombudsman shall investigate alleged violations falling within
the jurisdiction set forth in Article II.1. He or she may act either on his or her own
initiative or in response to an allegation presented by any Party or person,
non-governmental organization, or group of individuals claiming to be the victim of a
violation or acting on behalf of alleged victims who are deceased or missing. The work of
the Ombudsman shall be free of charge to the person concerned.
2. The Ombudsman shall have complete, unimpeded, and immediate access
to any person, place, or information upon his or her request.
(a) The Ombudsman shall have access to and may examine all official
documents, and he or she can require any person, including officials of Kosovo, to
cooperate by providing relevant information, documents, and files.
(b) The ombudsman may attend administrative hearings and meetings of
other Kosovo institutions in order to gather information.
(c) The Ombudsman may examine facilities and places where persons
deprived of their liberty are detained, work, or are otherwise located.
(d) The Ombudsman and staff shall maintain the confidentiality of all
confidential information obtained by them, unless the ombudsman determines that such
information is evidence of a violation of rights falling within his or her jurisdiction,
in which case that information may be revealed in public reports or appropriate legal
(e) The Parties undertake to ensure cooperation with the Ombudsman's
investigations. Willful and knowing failure to comply shall be a criminal offense
prosecutable in any jurisdiction of the Parties. Where an official impedes an
investigation by refusing to provide necessary information, the ombudsman shall contact
that official's superior or the public prosecutor for appropriate penal action to be taken
in accordance with the law.
3. The Ombudsman shall issue findings and conclusions in the form of a
published report promptly after concluding an investigation.
(a) A Party, institution, or official identified by the Ombudsman as a
violator shall, within a period specified by the Ombudsman, explain in writing how it will
comply with any prescriptions the Ombudsman may put forth for remedial measures.
(b) In the event that a person or entity does not comply with the
conclusions and recommendations of the Ombudsman, the report shall be forwarded for
further action to the Joint Commission established by Chapter 5 of this Agreement, to the
President of the appropriate Party, and to any other officials or institutions that the
ombudsman deems proper.
Article I: General Obligations
1. The Parties undertake to recreate, as quickly as possible, normal
conditions of life in Kosovo and to cooperate fully with each other and with all
international organizations, agencies, and non-governmental organizations involved in the
implementation of this Agreement. They welcome the willingness of the international
community to send to the region a force to assist in the implementation of this Agreement.
(a) The United Nations Security Council is invited to pass a resolution
under Chapter VII of the Charter endorsing and adopting the arrangements set forth in this
Chapter, including the establishment of a multinational military implementation force in
Kosovo. The Parties invite NATO to constitute and lead a military force to help ensure
compliance with the provisions of this Chapter. They also reaffirm the sovereignty and
territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).
(b) The Parties agree that NATO will establish and deploy a force
(hereinafter "KFOR") which may be composed of ground, air, and maritime units
from NATO and non-NATO nations, operating under the authority and subject to the direction
and the political control of the North Atlantic Council (NAC) through the NATO chain of
command. The Parties agree to facilitate the deployment and operations of this force and
agree also to comply fully with all the obligations of this Chapter.
(c) It is agreed that other States may assist in implementing this
Chapter. The Parties agree that the modalities of those States' participation will be the
subject of agreement between such participating States and NATO.
- The purposes of these obligations are as follows:
(a) to establish a durable cessation of hostilities. Other than those
Forces provided for in this Chapter, under no circumstances shall any armed Forces enter,
reenter, or remain within Kosovo without the prior express consent of the KFOR Commander
(COMKFOR). For the purposes of this Chapter, the term "Forces" includes all
personnel and organizations with military capability, including regular army, armed
civilian groups, paramilitary groups, air forces, national guards, border police, army
reserves, military police, intelligence services, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Local,
Special, Riot and Anti-Terrorist Police, and any other groups or individuals so designated
by COMKFOR. The only exception to the provisions of this paragraph is for civilian police
engaged in hot pursuit of a person suspected of committing a serious criminal offense, as
provided for in Chapter 2;
(b) to provide for the support and authorization of the KFOR and in
particular to authorize the KFOR to take such actions as are required, including the use
of necessary force, to ensure compliance with this Chapter and the protection of the KFOR,
Implementation Mission (IM), and other international organizations, agencies, and
nongovernmental organizations involved in the implementation of this Agreement, and to
contribute to a secure environment;
(c) to provide, at no cost, the use of all facilities and services
required for the deployment, operations and support of the KFOR.
3. The Parties understand and agree that the obligations undertaken in this Chapter
shall apply equally to each Party. Each Party shall be held individually responsible for
compliance with its obligations, and each agrees that delay or failure to comply by one
Party shall not constitute cause for any other Party to fail to carry out its own
obligations. All Parties shall be equally subject to such enforcement action by the KFOR
as may be necessary to ensure implementation of this Chapter in Kosovo and the protection
of the KFOR, IM, and other international organizations, agencies, and non governmental
organizations involved in the implementation of this Agreement.
Article II: Cessation of Hostilities
1. The Parties shall, immediately upon entry into force of this
Agreement (EIF), refrain from committing any hostile or provocative acts of any type
against each other or against any person in Kosovo. They shall not encourage or organize
hostile or provocative demonstrations.
2. In carrying out the obligations set forth in paragraph 1, the
Parties undertake in particular to cease the firing of all weapons and explosive devices
except as authorized by COMKFOR. They shall not place any mines, barriers, unauthorized
checkpoints, observation posts (with the exception of COMKFOR-approved border observation
posts and crossing points), or protective obstacles. Except as provided in Chapter 2, the
Parties shall not engage in any military, security, or trainingrelated activities,
including ground, air, or air defense operations, in or over Kosovo, without the prior
express approval of COMKFOR.
3. Except for Border Guard forces (as provided for in Article IV), no
Party shall have Forces present within a 5 kilometer zone inward from the international
border of the FRY that is also the border of Kosovo (hereinafter "the Border
Zone"). The Border Zone will be marked on the ground by EIF + 14 days by VJ Border
Guard personnel in accordance with direction from IM. COMKFOR may determine small scale
reconfigurations for operational reasons.
(a) With the exception of civilian police performing normal police
duties as determined by the CIM, no Party shall have Forces present within 5 kilometers of
the Kosovo side of the boundary of Kosovo with other parts of the FRY.
(b) The presence of any Forces within 5 kilometers of the other side of
that boundary shall be notified to COMKFOR; if, in the judgment of COMKFOR, such presence
threatens or would threaten implementation of this Chapter in Kosovo, he shall contact the
authorities responsible for the Forces in question and may require those Forces to
withdraw from or remain outside that area.
5. No Party shall conduct any reprisals, counter-attacks, or any
unilateral actions in response to violations of this Chapter by another Party. The Parties
shall respond to alleged violations of this Chapter through the procedures provided in
Article III: Redeployment, Withdrawal and Demilitarization of Forces
In order to disengage their Forces and to avoid any further conflict,
the Parties shall immediately upon EIF begin to re-deploy, withdraw, or demilitarize their
Forces in accordance with Articles IV, V, and VI.
Article IV: VJ Forces
1. VJ Army Units
(a) By K-Day + 5 days, all VJ Army units in Kosovo (with the exception
of those Forces specified in paragraph 2 of this Article) shall have completed
redeployment to the approved cantonment sites listed at Appendix A to this Chapter. The
senior VJ commander in Kosovo shall confirm in writing to COMKFOR by K-Day + 5 days that
the VJ is in compliance and provide the information required in Article VII below to take
account of withdrawals or other changes made during the redeployment. This information
shall be updated weekly.
(b) By K-Day + 30 days, the Chief of the VJ General Staff, through the
senior VJ commander in Kosovo, shall provide for approval by COMKFOR a detailed plan for
the phased withdrawal of VJ Forces from Kosovo to other locations in Serbia to ensure the
following timelines are met:
i) By K-Day + 90 days, VJ authorities must, to the satisfaction of
COMKFOR, withdraw from Kosovo to other locations in Serbia 50% of men and materiel and all
designated offensive assets. Such assets are taken to be: main battle tanks; all other
armored vehicles mounting weapons greater than 12.7mm; and, all heavy weapons (vehicle
mounted or not) of over 82mm.
ii) By K-Day + 180 days, all VJ Army personnel and equipment (with the
exception of those Forces specified in paragraph 2 of this Article) shall be withdrawn
from Kosovo to other locations in Serbia.
2. VJ Border Guard Forces
(a) VJ Border Guard forces shall be permitted but limited to a
structure of 1500 members at preFebruary 1998 Border Guard Battalion facilities located in
Djakovica, Prizren, and Urosevac and subordinate facilities within the 5 kilometer Border
Zone, or at a limited number of existing facilities in the immediate proximity of the
Border Zone subject to the prior approval of COMKFOR, with that number to be reached by
K-Day + 14 days. An additional number of VJ personnel -- totaling no more than 1000 C2 and
logistics forces -- will be permitted to remain in the approved cantonment sites listed at
Appendix A to fulfill brigade-level functions related only to border security. After an
initial 90 day period from K-Day, COMKFOR may at any time review the deployments of VJ
personnel and may require further adjustments to force levels, with the objective of
reaching the minimum force structure required for legitimate border security, as the
security situation and the conduct of the Parties warrant.
(b) VJ elements in Kosovo shall be limited to weapons of 82mm and
below. They shall possess neither armored vehicles (other than wheeled vehicles mounting
weapons of 12.7mm or less) nor air defense weapons.
(c) VJ Border Guard units shall be permitted to patrol in Kosovo only
within the Border Zone and solely for the purpose of defending the border against external
attack and maintaining its integrity by preventing illicit border crossings. Geographic
terrain considerations may require Border Guard maneuver inward of the Border Zone; any
such maneuver shall be coordinated with and approved by COMKFOR.
(d) With the exception of the Border Zone, VJ units may travel through
Kosovo only to reach duty stations and garrisons in the Border Zone or approved cantonment
sites. Such travel may only be along routes and in accordance with procedures that have
been determined by COMKFOR after consultation with the CIM, VJ unit commanders, communal
government authorities, and police commanders. These routes and procedures will be
determined by K-Day + 14 days, subject to redetermination by COMKFOR at any time. VJ
forces in Kosovo but outside the Border Zone shall be permitted to act only in
self-defense in response to a hostile act pursuant to Rules of Engagement (ROE) which will
be approved by COMKFOR in consultation with the CIM. When deployed in the Border Zone,
they will act in accordance with ROE established under control of COMKFOR.
(e) VJ Border Guard forces may conduct training activities only within
the 5 kilometer Border Zone, and only with the prior express approval of COMKFOR.
3. Yugoslav Air and Air Defense Forces (YAADF)
All aircraft, radars, surface-to-air missiles (including man-portable
air defense systems (MANPADS) and anti-aircraft artillery in Kosovo shall immediately upon
EIF begin withdrawing from Kosovo to other locations in Serbia outside the 25 kilometer
Mutual Safety Zone as defined in Article X. This withdrawal shall be completed and
reported by the senior VJ commander in Kosovo to the appropriate NATO commander not more
than 10 days after EIF. The appropriate NATO commander shall control and coordinate use of
airspace over Kosovo commencing at EIF as further specified in Article X. No air defense
systems, target tracking radars, or anti-aircraft artillery shall be positioned or
operated within Kosovo or the 25 kilometer Mutual Safety Zone without the prior express
approval of the appropriate NATO commander.
Article V: Other Forces
1. The actions of Forces in Kosovo other than KFOR, VJ, MUP, or local
police forces provided for in Chapter 2 (hereinafter referred to as "Other
Forces") shall be in accordance with this Article. Upon EIF, all Other Forces in
Kosovo must immediately observe the provisions of Article I, paragraph 2, Article II,
paragraph 1, and Article III and in addition refrain from all hostile intent, military
training and formations, organization of demonstrations, and any movement in either
direction or smuggling across international borders or the boundary between Kosovo and
other parts of the FRY. Furthermore, upon EIF, all Other Forces in Kosovo must publicly
commit themselves to demilitarize on terms to be determined by COMKFOR, renounce violence,
guarantee security of international personnel, and respect the international borders of
the FRY and all terms of this Chapter.
2. Except as approved by COMKFOR, from K-Day, all Other Forces in
Kosovo must not carry weapons:
(a) within 1 kilometer of VJ and MUP cantonments listed at Appendix A;
(b) within 1 kilometer of the main roads as follows:
1) Pec - Lapusnik - Pristina
2) border - Djakovica - Klina
3) border - Prizren - Suva Reka - Pristina
4) Djakovica - Orahovac - Lapusnik - Pristina
5) Pec-Djakovica - Prizren - Urosevac - border
6) border - Urosevac Pristina -Podujevo - border
7) Pristina - Kosovska Mitrovica - border
8) Kosovka Mitrovica - (Rakos) - Pec
9) Pec - Boreder with Montenegro (through Rozaj)
10) Pristina - Lisica - border with Serbia
11) Pristina - Gnjilane - Urosevac
12) Gnjilane - Veliki Trnovac - border with Serbia;
13) Prizren - Doganovic
(c) within 1 kilometer of the Border Zone;
(d) in any other areas designated by COMKFOR.
3. By K-Day + 5 days, all Other Forces must abandon and close all
fighting positions, entrenchments, and checkpoints.
4. By K-Day + 5 days, all Other Forces' commanders designated by
COMKFOR shall report completion of the above requirements in the format at Article VII to
COMKFOR and continue to provide weekly detailed status reports until demilitarization is
5. COMKFOR will establish procedures for demilitarization and
monitoring of Other Forces in Kosovo and for the further regulation of their activities.
These procedures will be established to facilitate a phased demilitarization program as
(a) By K-Day + 5 days, all Other Forces shall establish secure weapons
storage sites, which shall be registered with and verified by the KFOR;
(b) By K-Day + 30 days, all Other Forces shall store all prohibited
weapons (any weapon 12.7mm or larger, any anti-tank or anti-aircraft weapons, grenades,
mines or explosives) and automatic weapons in the registered weapons storage sites. Other
Forces commanders shall confirm completion of weapons storage to COMKFOR no later than
K-Day + 30 days;
(c) By K-Day + 30 days, all Other Forces shall cease wearing military
uniforms and insignia, and cease carrying prohibited weapons and automatic weapons;
(d) By K-Day + 90 days, authority for storage sites shall pass to the
KFOR. After this date, it shall be illegal for Other Forces to possess prohibited weapons
and automatic weapons, and such weapons shall be subject to confiscation by the KFOR;
(e) By K-Day + 120 days, demilitarization of all Other Forces shall be
6. By EIF + 30 days, subject to arrangements by COMKFOR if necessary,
all Other Forces personnel who are not of local origin, whether or not they are legally
within Kosovo, including individual advisors, freedom fighters, trainers, volunteers, and
personnel from neighboring and other States, shall be withdrawn from Kosovo.
ARTICLE VI: MUP
1. Ministry of Interior Police (MUP) is defined as all police and
public security units and personnel under the control of Federal or Republic authorities
except for the border police referred to in Chapter 2 and police academy students and
personnel at the training school in Vucitrn referred to in Chapter 2. The CIM, in
consultation with COMKFOR, shall have the discretion to exempt any public security units
from this definition if he determines that it is in the public interest (e.g.
(a) By K-Day + 5 days, all MUP units in Kosovo (with the exception of
the border police referred to in Chapter 2) shall have completed redeployment to the
approved cantonment sites listed at Appendix A to this Chapter or to garrisons outside
Kosovo. The senior MUP commander in Kosovo or his representative shall confirm in writing
by K-Day + 5 days to COMKFOR and the CIM that the MUP is in compliance and update the
information required in Article VII to take account of withdrawals or other changes made
during the redeployment. This information shall be updated weekly. Resumption of normal
communal police patrolling will be permitted under the supervision and control of the IM
and as specifically approved by the CIM in consultation with COMKFOR, and will be
contingent on compliance with the terms of this Agreement.
(b) Immediately upon EIF, the following withdrawals shall begin:
i) By K-Day + 5 days, those MUP units not assigned to Kosovo prior to 1
February 1998 shall withdraw all personnel and equipment from Kosovo to other locations in
ii) By K-Day + 20 days, all Special Police, including PJP, SAJ, and JSO
forces, and their equipment shall be withdrawn from their cantonment sites out of Kosovo
to other locations in Serbia. Additionally, all MUP offensive assets (designated as
armored vehicles mounting weapons 12.7mm or larger, and all heavy weapons (vehicle mounted
or not) of over 82mm.) shall be withdrawn.
(c) By K-Day + 30 days, the senior MUP commander shall provide for
approval by COMKFOR, in consultation with the CIM, a detailed plan for the phased drawdown
of the remainder of MUP forces. In the event that COMKFOR, in consultation with the CIM,
does not approve the plan, he has the authority to issue his own binding plan for further
MUP drawdowns. The CIM will decide at the same time when the remaining MUP units will wear
new insignia. In any case, the following time-table must be met:
i) by K-Day + 60 days, 50% drawdown of the remaining MUP units
including reservists. The CIM after consultations with COMKFOR shall have the discretion
to extend this deadline for up to K-Day + 90 days if he judges there to be a risk of a law
ii) by K-Day + 120 days, further drawdown to 2500 MUP. The CIM after
consultations with COMKFOR shall have the discretion to extend this deadline for up to
K-Day + 180 days to meet operational needs;
iii) transition to communal police force shall begin as Kosovar police
are trained and able to assume their duties. The CIM shall organize this transition
between MUP and communal police;
iv) in any event, by EIF + one year, all Ministry of Interior Civil
Police shall be drawn down to zero. The CIM shall have the discretion to extend this
deadline for up to an additional 12 months to meet operational needs.
(d) The 2500 MUP allowed by this Chapter and referred to in Article
V.1(a) of Chapter 2 shall have authority only for civil police functions and be under the
supervision and control of the CIM.
Article VII: Notifications
1. By K-Day + 5 days, the Parties shall furnish the following specific
information regarding the status of all conventional military; all police, including
military police, Department of Public Security Police, special police; paramilitary; and
all Other Forces in Kosovo, and shall update the COMKFOR weekly on changes in this
(a) location, disposition, and strengths of all military and special
police units referred to above;
(b) quantity and type of weaponry of 12.7 mm and above, and ammunition
for such weaponry, including location of cantonments and supply depots and storage sites;
(c) positions and descriptions of any surface-to-air
missiles/launchers, including mobile systems, anti-aircraft artillery, supporting radars,
and associated command and control systems;
(d) positions and descriptions of all mines, unexploded ordnance,
explosive devices, demolitions, obstacles, booby traps, wire entanglements, physical or
military hazards to the safe movement of any personnel in Kosovo, weapons systems,
vehicles, or any other military equipment; and
(e) any further information of a military or security nature requested
by the COMKFOR.
Article VIII: Operations and Authority of the KFOR
1. Consistent with the general obligations of Article I, the Parties
understand and agree that the KFOR will deploy and operate without hindrance and with the
authority to take all necessary action to help ensure compliance with this Chapter.
2. The Parties understand and agree that the KFOR shall have the right:
(a) to monitor and help ensure compliance by all Parties with this
Chapter and to respond promptly to any violations and restore compliance, using military
force if required. This includes necessary action to:
i) enforce VJ and MUP reductions;
ii) enforce demilitarization of Other Forces;
iii) enforce restrictions on all VJ, MUP and Other Forces' activities,
movement and training in Kosovo;
(b) to establish liaison arrangements with IM, and support IM as
(c) to establish liaison arrangements with local Kosovo authorities,
with Other Forces, and with FRY and Serbian civil and military authorities;
(d) to observe, monitor, and inspect any and all facilities or
activities in Kosovo, including within the Border Zone, that the COMKFOR believes has or
may have military capability, or are or may be associated with the employment of military
or police capabilities, or are otherwise relevant to compliance with this Chapter;
(e) to require the Parties to mark and clear minefields and obstacles
and to monitor their performance;
(f) to require the Parties to participate in the Joint Military
Commission and its subordinate military commissions as described in Article XI.
3. The Parties understand and agree that the KFOR shall have the right
to fulfill its supporting tasks, within the limits of its assigned principal tasks, its
capabilities, and available resources, and as directed by the NAC, which include the
(a) to help create secure conditions for the conduct by others of other
tasks associated with this Agreement, including free and fair elections;
(b) to assist the movement of organizations in the accomplishment of
(c) to assist international agencies in fulfilling their
responsibilities in Kosovo;
(d) to observe and prevent interference with the movement of civilian
populations, refugees, and displaced persons, and to respond appropriately to deliberate
threat to life and person.
4. The Parties understand and agree that further directives from the
NAC may establish additional duties and responsibilities for the KFOR in implementing this
5. KFOR operations shall be governed by the following provisions:
(a) KFOR and its personnel shall have the legal status, rights, and
obligations specified in Appendix B to this Chapter;
(b) The KFOR shall have the right to use all necessary means to ensure
its full ability to communicate and shall have the right to the unrestricted use of the
entire electromagnetic spectrum. In implementing this right, the KFOR shall make
reasonable efforts to coordinate with the appropriate authorities of the Parties;
(c) The KFOR shall have the right to control and regulate surface
traffic throughout Kosovo including the movement of the Forces of the Parties. All
military training activities and movements in Kosovo must be authorized in advance by
(d) The KFOR shall have complete and unimpeded freedom of movement by
ground, air, and water into and throughout Kosovo. It shall in Kosovo have the right to
bivouac, maneuver, billet, and utilize any areas or facilities to carry out its
responsibilities as required for its support, training, and operations, with such advance
notice as may be practicable. Neither the KFOR nor any of its personnel shall be liable
for any damages to public or private property that they may cause in the course of duties
related to the implementation of this Chapter. Roadblocks, checkpoints, or other
impediments to KFOR freedom of movement shall constitute a breach of this Chapter and the
violating Party shall be subject to military action by the KFOR, including the use of
necessary force to ensure compliance with this Chapter.
6. The Parties understand and agree that COMKFOR shall have the
authority, without interference or permission of any Party, to do all that he judges
necessary and proper, including the use of military force, to protect the KFOR and the IM,
and to carry out the responsibilities listed in this Chapter. The Parties shall comply in
all respects with KFOR instructions and requirements.
7. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Chapter, the Parties
understand and agree that COMKFOR has the right and is authorized to compel the removal,
withdrawal, or relocation of specific Forces and weapons, and to order the cessation of
any activities whenever the COMKFOR determines such Forces, weapons, or activities to
constitute a threat or potential threat to either the KFOR or its mission, or to another
Party. Forces failing to redeploy, withdraw, relocate, or to cease threatening or
potentially threatening activities following such a demand by the KFOR shall be subject to
military action by the KFOR, including the use of necessary force, to ensure compliance,
consistent with the terms set forth in Article I, paragraph 3.
Article IX: Border Control
The Parties understand and agree that, until other arrangements are
established, and subject to provisions of this Chapter and Chapter 2, controls along the
international border of the FRY that is also the border of Kosovo will he maintained by
the existing institutions normally assigned to such tasks, subject to supervision by the
KFOR and the IM, which shall have the right to review and approve all personnel and units,
to monitor their performance, and to remove and replace any personnel for behavior
inconsistent with this Chapter.
Article X: Control of Air Movements
The appropriate NATO commander shall have sole authority to establish
rules and procedures governing command and control of the airspace over Kosovo as well as
within a 25 kilometer Mutual Safety Zone (MSZ). This MSZ shall consist of FRY airspace
within 25 kilometers outward from the boundary of Kosovo with other parts of the FRY. This
Chapter supersedes the NATO Kosovo Verification Mission Agreement of October 12, 1998 on
any matter or area in which they may contradict each other. No military air traffic, fixed
or rotary wing, of any Party shall be permitted to fly over Kosovo or in the MSZ without
the prior express approval of the appropriate NATO commander. Violations of any of the
provisions above, including the appropriate NATO commander's rules and procedures
governing the airspace over Kosovo, as well as unauthorized flight or activation of FRY
Integrated Air Defense (IADS) within the MSZ, shall be subject to military action by the
KFOR, including the use of necessary force. The KFOR shall have a liaison team at the FRY
Air Force HQ and a YAADF liaison shall he established with the KFOR. The Parties
understand and agree that the appropriate NATO commander may delegate control of normal
civilian air activities to appropriate FRY institutions to monitor operations, deconflict
KFOR air traffic movements, and ensure smooth and safe operation of the air traffic
Article XI: Establishment of a Joint Military Commission
1. A Joint Military Commission (JMC) shall be established with the
deployment of the KFOR to Kosovo.
2. The JMC shall be chaired by COMKFOR or his representative and
consist of the following members:
(a) the senior Yugoslav military commander of the Forces of the FRY or
(b) the Ministers of Interior of the FRY and Republic of Serbia or
(c) a senior military representative of all Other Forces;
(d) a representative of the IM;
(e) other persons as COMKFOR shall determine, including one or more
representatives of the Kosovo civilian leadership.
3. The JMC shall:
(a) serve as the central body for all Parties to address any military
complaints, questions, or problems that require resolution by the COMKFOR, such as
allegations of cease-fire violations or other allegations of non-compliance with this
(b) receive reports and make recommendations for specific actions to
COMKFOR to ensure compliance by the Parties with the provisions of this Chapter;
(c) assist COMKFOR in determining and implementing local transparency
measures between the Parties.
4. The JMC shall not include any persons publicly indicted by the
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.
5. The JMC shall function as a consultative body to advise COMKFOR.
However, all final decisions shall be made by COMKFOR and shall be binding on the Parties.
6. The JMC shall meet at the call of COMKFOR. Any Party may request
COMKFOR to convene a meeting.
7. The JMC shall establish subordinate military commissions for the
purpose of providing assistance in carrying out the functions described above. Such
commissions shall be at an appropriate level, as COMKFOR shall direct. Composition of such
commissions shall be determined by COMKFOR.
Article XII: Prisoner Release
1. By EIF + 21 days, the Parties shall release and transfer, in
accordance with international humanitarian standards, all persons held in connection with
the conflict (hereinafter "prisoners"). In addition, the Parties shall cooperate
fully with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to facilitate its work, in
accordance with its mandate, to implement and monitor a plan for the release and transfer
of prisoners in accordance with the above deadline. In preparation for compliance with
this requirement, the Parties shall:
(a) grant the ICRC full access to all persons, irrespective of their
status, who are being held by them in connection with the conflict, for visits in
accordance with the ICRC's standard operating procedures;
(b) provide to the ICRC any and all information concerning prisoners,
as requested by the ICRC, by EIF + 14 days.
2. The Parties shall provide information, through the tracing
mechanisms of the ICRC, to the families of all persons who are unaccounted for. The
Parties shall cooperate fully with the ICRC in its efforts to determine the identity,
whereabouts, and fate of those unaccounted for.
Article XIII: Cooperation
The Parties shall cooperate fully with all entities involved in
implementation of this settlement, as described in the Framework Agreement, or which are
otherwise authorized by the United Nations Security Council, including the International
Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
Article XIV: Notification to Military Commands.
Each Party shall ensure that the terms of this Chapter and written
orders requiring compliance are immediately communicated to all of its Forces.
Article XV: Final Authority to Interpret
1. Subject to paragraph 2, the KFOR Commander is the final authority in
theater regarding interpretation of this Chapter and his determinations are binding on all
Parties and persons.
2. The CIM is the final authority in theater regarding interpretation
of the references in this Chapter to his functions (directing the VJ Border Guards under
Article II, paragraph 3; his functions concerning the MUP under Article VI) and his
determinations are binding on all Parties and persons.
Article XVI: K-Day
The date of activation of KFOR -- to be known as K-Day -shall be
determined by NATO.
A. Approved VJ/MUP Cantonment Sites
B. Status of Multi-National Military Implementation Force
Approved VJ/MUP Cantonment Sites
1. There are 13 approved cantonment sites in Kosovo for all VJ units,
weapons, equipment, and ammunition. Movement to cantonment sites, and subsequent
withdrawal from Kosovo, will occur in accordance with this Chapter. As the phased
withdrawal of VJ units progresses along the timeline as specified in this Chapter, COMKFOR
will close selected cantonment sites.
2. Initial approved VJ cantonment sites:
a) Pristina SW 423913NO210819E
b) Pristina Airfield 423412NO210040E
c) Vuctrin North 424936NO205755E
d) Kosovska Mitrovica 425315NO205227E
e) Gnjilane NE 422807NO212845E
f) Urosevac 422233NO210753E
g) Prizren 421315NO204504E
h) Djakovica SW 422212NO202530E
i) Pec 42391ON0201728E
j) Pristina Explosive Storage Fac 423636NO211225E
k) Pristina Ammo Depot SW 423518NO205923E
1) Pristina Ammo Depot 510 424211NO211056E
m) Pristina Headquarters facility 423938NO210934E
3. Within each cantonment site, VJ units are required to canton all
heavy weapons and vehicles outside of storage facilities.
4. After EIF + 180 days, the remaining 2500 VJ forces dedicated to
border security functions provided for in this Agreement will be garrisoned and cantoned
at the following locations: Djakovica, Prizren, and Ursoevac; subordinate border posts
within the Border Zone; a limited number of existing facilities in the immediate proximity
of the Border Zone subject to the prior approval of COMKFOR; and headquarters/C2 and
logistic support facilities in Pristina.
5. There are 37 approved cantonment sites for all MUP and Special
Police force units in Kosovo. There are seven (7) approved regional SUPs. Each of the 37
approved cantonment sites will fall under the administrative
control of one of the regional SUPs. Movement to cantonment sites, and
subsequent withdrawal of MUP from Kosovo, will occur in accordance with this Chapter.
6. Approved MUP regional SUPs and cantonment sites:
a) Kosovska Mitrovica SUP 42530ON0205200E
1) Kosovska Mitrovica (2 locations)
5) Zubin Potok
b) Pristina SUP 42400ON0211000E
1) Pristina (6 locations)
3) Kosovo Polje
c) Pec SUP 42390ON0201800E
1) Pec (2 locations)
d) Djakovica SUP 42230ON0202600E
1) Djakovica (2 locations)
e) Urosevac SUP 42220ON0211000E
1) Urosevac (2 locations)
f) Gnjilane SUP 42280ON0212900E
1) Gnjilane (2 locations)
5) Novo Brdo
g) Prizren SUP 42130ON0204500E
1) Prizren (2 locations)
3) Suva Reka
7. Within each cantonment site, MUP units are required to canton all
vehicles above 6 tons, including APCs and BOVs, and all heavy weapons outside of storage
- KFOR will have the exclusive right to inspect any cantonment site or any other location,
at any time, without interference from any Party.
Status of Multi-National Military Implementation Force
1. For the purposes of this Appendix, the following expressions shall
have the meanings hereunder assigned to them:
(a) "NATO" means the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), its subsidiary bodies, its military Headquarters, the NATO-led KFOR, and any
elements/units forming any part of KFOR or supporting KFOR, whether or not they are from a
NATO member country and whether or not they are under NATO or national command and
control, when acting in furtherance of this Agreement.
(b) "Authorities in the FRY" means appropriate authorities,
whether Federal, Republic, Kosovo or other.
(c) "NATO personnel" means the military, civilian, and
contractor personnel assigned or attached to or employed by NATO, including the military,
civilian, and contractor personnel from non-NATO states participating in the Operation,
with the exception of personnel locally hired.
(d) "the Operation" means the support, implementation,
preparation, and participation by NATO and NATO personnel in furtherance of this Chapter.
(e) "Military Headquarters" means any entity, whatever its
denomination, consisting of or constituted in part by NATO military personnel established
in order to fulfill the Operation.
(f) "Authorities" means the appropriate responsible
individual, agency, or organization of the Parties.
(g) "Contractor personnel" means the technical experts or
functional specialists whose services are required by NATO and who are in the territory of
the FRY exclusively to serve NATO either in an advisory capacity in technical matters, or
for the setting up, operation, or maintenance of equipment, unless they are:
(i) nationals of the FRY; or
(ii) persons ordinarily resident in the FRY.
(h) "Official use" means any use of goods purchased, or of
the services received and intended for the performance of any function as required by the
operation of the Headquarters.
(i) "Facilities" means all buildings, structures, premises,
and land required for conducting the operational, training, and administrative activities
by NATO for the Operation as well as for accommodation of NATO personnel.
2. Without prejudice to their privileges and immunities under this
Appendix, all NATO personnel shall respect the laws applicable in the FRY, whether
Federal, Republic, Kosovo, or other, insofar as compliance with those laws is compatible
with the entrusted tasks/mandate and shall refrain from activities not compatible with the
nature of the operation.
3. The Parties recognize the need for expeditious departure and entry
procedures for NATO personnel. Such personnel shall be exempt from passport and visa
regulations and the registration requirements applicable to aliens. At all entry and exit
points to/from the FRY, NATO personnel shall be permitted to enter/exit the FRY on
production of a national identification (ID) card. NATO personnel shall carry
identification which they may be requested to produce for the authorities in the FRY, but
operations, training, and movement shall not be allowed to be impeded or delayed by such
4. NATO military personnel shall normally wear uniforms, and NATO
personnel may possess and carry arms if authorized to do so by their orders. The Parties
shall accept as valid, without tax or fee, drivers, licenses and permits issued to NATO
personnel by their respective national authorities.
5. NATO shall be permitted to display the NATO flag and/or national
flags of its constituent national elements/units on any NATO uniform, means of transport,
(a) NATO shall be immune from all legal process, whether civil,
administrative, or criminal.
(b) NATO personnel, under all circumstances and at all times, shall be
immune from the Parties' jurisdiction in respect of any civil, administrative, criminal,
or disciplinary offenses which may be committed by them in the FRY. The Parties shall
assist States participating in the operation in the exercise of their jurisdiction over
their own nationals.
(c) Notwithstanding the above, and with the NATO Commander's express
agreement in each case, the authorities in the FRY may exceptionally exercise jurisdiction
in such matters, but only in respect of Contractor personnel who are not subject to the
jurisdiction of their nation of citizenship.
7. NATO personnel shall be immune from any form of arrest,
investigation, or detention by the authorities in the FRY. NATO personnel erroneously
arrested or detained shall immediately be turned over to NATO authorities.
8. NATO personnel shall enjoy, together with their vehicles, vessels,
aircraft, and equipment, free and unrestricted passage and unimpeded access throughout the
FRY including associated airspace and territorial waters. This shall include, but not be
limited to, the right of bivouac, maneuver, billet, and utilization of any areas or
facilities as required for support, training, and operations.
9. NATO shall be exempt from duties, taxes, and other charges and
inspections and custom regulations including providing inventories or other routine
customs documentation, for personnel, vehicles, vessels, aircraft, equipment, supplies,
and provisions entering, exiting, or transiting the territory of the FRY in support of the
10. The authorities in the FRY shall facilitate, on a priority basis
and with all appropriate means, all movement of personnel, vehicles, vessels, aircraft,
equipment, or supplies, through or in the airspace, ports, airports, or roads used. No
charges may be assessed against NATO for air navigation, landing, or takeoff of aircraft,
whether government-owned or chartered. Similarly, no duties, dues, tolls or charges may be
assessed against NATO ships, whether government-owned or chartered, for the mere entry and
exit of ports. Vehicles, vessels, and aircraft used in support of the operation shall not
be subject to licensing or registration requirements, nor commercial insurance.
11. NATO is granted the use of airports, roads, rails, and ports
without payment of fees, duties, dues, tolls, or charges occasioned by mere use. NATO
shall not, however, claim exemption from reasonable charges for specific services
requested and received, but operations/movement and access shall not be allowed to be
impeded pending payment for such services.
12. NATO personnel shall be exempt from taxation by the Parties on the
salaries and emoluments received from NATO and on any income received from outside the
13. NATO personnel and their tangible moveable property imported into,
acquired in, or exported from the FRY shall be exempt from all duties, taxes, and other
charges and inspections and custom regulations.
14. NATO shall be allowed to import and to export, free of duty, taxes
and other charges, such equipment, provisions, and supplies as NATO shall require for the
operation, provided such goods are for the official use of NATO or for sale to NATO
personnel. Goods sold shall be solely for the use of NATO personnel and not transferable
to unauthorized persons.
15. The Parties recognize that the use of communications channels is
necessary for the Operation. NATO shall be allowed to operate its own internal mail
services. The Parties shall, upon simple request, grant all telecommunications services,
including broadcast services, needed for the operation, as determined by NATO. This shall
include the right to utilize such means and services as required to assure full ability to
communicate, and the right to use all of the electro-magnetic spectrum for this purpose,
free of cost. In implementing this right, NATO shall make every reasonable effort to
coordinate with and take into account the needs and requirements of appropriate
authorities in the FRY.
16. The Parties shall provide, free of cost, such public facilities as
NATO shall require to prepare for and execute the Operation. The Parties shall assist NATO
in obtaining, at the lowest rate, the necessary utilities, such as electricity, water, gas
and other resources, as NATO shall require for the Operation.
17. NATO and NATO personnel shall be immune from claims of any sort
which arise out of activities in pursuance of the operation; however, NATO will entertain
claims on an ex gratia basis.
18. NATO shall be allowed to contract directly for the acquisition of
goods, services, and construction from any source within and outside the FRY. Such
contracts, goods, services, and construction shall not be subject to the payment of
duties, taxes, or other charges. NATO may also carry out construction works with their own
19. Commercial undertakings operating in the FRY only in the service of
NATO shall be exempt from local laws and regulations with respect to the terms and
conditions of their employment and licensing and registration of employees, businesses,
20. NATO may hire local personnel who on an individual basis shall
remain subject to local laws and regulations with the exception of labor/employment laws.
However, local personnel hired by NATO shall:
(a) be immune from legal process in respect of words spoken or written
and all acts performed by them in their official capacity;
(b) be immune from national services and/or national military service
(c) be subject only to employment terms and conditions established by
(d) be exempt from taxation on the salaries and emoluments paid to them
21. In carrying out its authorities under this Chapter, NATO is
authorized to detain individuals and, as quickly as possible, turn them over to
22. NATO may, in the conduct of the operation, have need to make
improvements or modifications to certain infrastructure in the FRY, such as roads,
bridges, tunnels, buildings, and utility systems. Any such improvements or modifications
of a non-temporary nature shall become part of and in the same ownership as that
infrastructure. Temporary improvements or modifications may be removed at the discretion
of the NATO Commander, and the infrastructure returned to as near its original condition
as possible, fair wear and tear excepted.
23. Failing any prior settlement, disputes with the regard to the
interpretation or application of this Appendix shall be settled between NATO and the
appropriate authorities in the FRY.
24. Supplementary arrangements with any of the Parties may be concluded
to facilitate any details connected with the Operation.
25. The provisions of this Appendix shall remain in force until
completion of the Operation or as the Parties and NATO otherwise agree.
Amendment, Comprehensive Assessment, and Final Clauses
Article I: Amendment and Comprehensive Assessment
1. Amendments to this Agreement shall be adopted by agreement of all
the Parties, except as otherwise provided by Article X of Chapter 1.
2. Each Party may propose amendments at any time and will consider and
consult with the other Parties with regard to proposed amendments.
3. Three years after the entry into force of this Agreement, an
international meeting shall be convened to determine a mechanism for a final settlement
for Kosovo, on the basis of the will of the people, opinions of relevant authorities, each
Party's efforts regarding the implementation of this Agreement, and the Helsinki Final
Act, and to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the implementation of this Agreement
and to consider proposals by any Party for additional measures.
Article II: Final Clauses
1. This Agreement is signed in the English language. After signature of
this Agreement, translations will be made into Serbian, Albanian, and other languages of
the national communities of Kosovo, and attached to the English text.
- This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature.
Federal Republic of